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Skills for Green Jobs European: 2018 update – Synthesis Report

The report highlights several key findings regarding the perception and categorization of ‘green’ terms (skills, jobs, economy) in the six countries examined. The main points are: Denmark: The green economy encompasses goods and services produced to protect the environment or save resources. Green employment involves the production of these goods and services, including activities related to renewable resources, energy and heat saving, waste water handling, and waste management. Germany: The German Federal Agency for Labour has identified 31 occupational types as ‘environmental occupations,’ directly contributing to environmental protection, resource conservation, and sustainability. These occupations are grouped into six subgroups, such as conservation of nature and landscape, environmental technology, waste management, and environmental administration. Estonia: There is no unified approach among stakeholders to define green jobs or separate green skills as a distinct competence. Green skills and jobs are seen as spread across various economic sectors. Spain: Green skills and jobs are considered to be distributed across sectors and occupations. New green occupations are often similar to traditional non-green occupations, requiring additional ‘green’ aspects in terms of skill development. France: The French National Observatory for Jobs and Occupations of the Green Economy recognizes nine green occupations and about 70 greening occupations. They monitor employment using both activity-based and occupation-based approaches. UK: In Scotland, green skills and jobs are anticipated based on the US O*NET classification of green occupations, recognizing three sets of green occupations based on the level of skills required. In England, green skills were classified into resource efficiency, low-carbon industry, climate resilience, and skills to manage natural assets. The report also highlights the role of social partners in policy design and the involvement of consultative bodies and platforms. While there is no dedicated mechanism for monitoring and anticipating green jobs and skills, sector-based mechanisms and regional cooperation are common. The involvement of social partners in skill anticipation varies across countries. Regarding green skills development policies, updates to general processes for reviewing VET programs and qualifications are observed, with some adaptations at local and regional levels. Training programs for the unemployed or individuals in work often do not specifically focus on green skills, but there are exceptions. The private sector’s involvement in designing and implementing VET provision for green skills reflects the overall institutional set-up, with partnerships and collaborations observed. In conclusion, the report emphasizes the need for a common understanding and definition of green skills and jobs across countries. It highlights the importance of coordination among environmental, employment, and skills policies to ensure a comprehensive approach. The report also notes the scarcity of monitoring and evaluation of policies related to green skills and the lack of consideration for gender balance in greening occupations.